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Autotest Client Tests


Overview

In this codelab, you will build a client-side Autotest to check the disk and cache throughput of a ChromiumOS device. You will learn how to:

1. Setup the environment needed for autotest

2. Run and edit a test

3. Write a new test and control file

4. Check results of the test

In the process of doing so you will also learn a little about the autotest framework.

Background

Autotest is an open source project designed for testing the linux kernel. Before starting this codelab you might benefit from scrolling through some upstream documentation on autotest client tests. Autotest is responsible for managing the state of multiple client devices as a distributed system, by integrating a web interface, database, servers and the clients themselves. Since this codelab is about client tests, what follows is a short description of how autotest runs a specific test, on one client. 


Autotest looks through all directories in client/tests and client/site_tests for simple python files that begin with ‘control.’. These files contain a list of variables, and a call to job.run_test. The control variables tell autotest when to schedule the test, and the call to run_test tells autotest how. Each test instance is part of a job. Autotest creates this job object and forks a child process to execute its control file.

Note the exec mentioned above is the python keyword, not os.exec


Tests reside in a couple of key locations in your checkout, and map to similar locations on the DUT (Device Under Test). Understanding the layout of these directories might give you some perspective:

  • <cros_checkout>/chromium/src/chrome/test/functional: holds chrome/chromeos functional tests. 
    • These include pyauto tests, but not autotest tests (Note: pyauto is deprecated). 
    • On the DUT, these map to: /usr/local/autotest/deps/chrome_test/test_src/chrome/test/functional/
  • <cros_checkout>/src/third_party/autotest/client/site_tests: holds autotest tests. 
    • On the DUT, these map to /usr/local/autotest/tests.
  • <cros_checkout>/src/platform/factory: holds some private factory tests, although the bulk of factory tests reside in site_tests.
Please consult the dynamic suite codelab to understand how your tests can run as a suite.

Prerequisites

  • chroot build environment.

  • Autotest source, basic python knowledge.

Objectives

In this codelab, we will:

  • Run a test, edit and rerun a test on the client device

  • Write a new test from scratch

  • View and collect results of the test

  • Get an overview of how autotest on the client works

  • Get an overview of the classes and libraries available to help you write tests.

Running a test on the client


First, get the autotest source:

a. If you Got the Code, you already have autotest.

b. If you do not wish to sync the entire source and reimage a device, you can run tests in a vm.

  • Install gsutils
  • Get an image
    • Select your image, e.g.,
      gsutil ls gs://chromeos-releases/dev-channel/lumpy/*
    • Copy your image, e.g.,
      gsutil cp gs://chromeos-releases/dev-channel/lumpy/3014.0.0/ChromeOS-R24-3014.0.0-lumpy.zip ./
    • Unzip the image and untar autotest.tar.bz2, e.g.,
      unzip ChromeOS-R24-3014.0.0-lumpy.zip chromiumos_qemu_image.bin autotest.tar.bz2
  • Get a VM:
    • The unzipped folder from 2.b should contain a VM.
      <cros_checkout>/src/scripts/bin/cros_start_vm --image_path=path/to/chromiumos_qemu_image.bin

If the cros_start_vm scripts fails you need to enable virtualization on your workstation. check for /dev/kvm or run ‘sudo kvm-ok’ (you might have to ‘sudo apt-get install cpu-checker’ first). It will either say /dev/kvm exists and kvm acceleration can be used or that /dev/kvm doesn’t and kvm acceleration can NOT be used. In the latter case, hit esc on boot and go to ‘system security:’, turn on virtualization. More information about running tests on a vm can be found here.


Once you have autotest, there are 2 ways to run tests, either using your machine as a server or from the client DUT. Running it directly on the device is faster, but requires invoking it from your server at least once.

Through test_that

1. enter chroot:

cros_checkout_directory$ cros_sdk

2. Invoke test_that, to run login_LoginSuccess on a vm with local autotest bits:

test_that localhost:9222 login_LoginSuccess

The basic usage of test_that:

test_that -b board dut_ip[:port] TEST


TEST can be the name of the test, or suite:suite_name for a suite. For example, to run the smoke suite on a device with board x86-mario


test_that -b x86-mario 192.168.x.x suite:smoke


Please see the test_that page for more details.


Directly on the DUT

You have to use test_that at least once so it copies over the test/dependencies before attempting this; If you haven’t, /usr/local/autotest may not exist on the device.

ssh root@<ip_address_of_dut>, password=test0000 

Once you're on the client device:

cd /usr/local/autotest

./bin/autotest_client tests/login_LoginSuccess/control


Editing a Test


For python-only changes, test_that uses autotest_quickmerge to copy your python changes to the sysroot. There is no need to run rcp/scp to copy the change over to your DUT.


The fastest way to edit a test is directly on the client. If you find the text editor on a Chromium OS device non-intuitive then edit the file locally and use a copy tool like rcp/scp to send it to the DUT.


1. Add a print statement to the login_LoginSuccess test you just ran

2. rsync it into /usr/local/autotest/tests on the client

rcp path/to/login_LoginSuccess.py root@<DUT_ip>:/usr/local/autotest/tests/login_LoginSuccess/

3. run it by invoking autotest_client, as described in the section on Running Tests Directly on the client. Note a print statement won’t show up when the test is run via test_that.


The more formal way of editing a test is to change the source and emerge it. The steps to doing this are very similar to those described in the section on emerging tests. You might want to perform a full emerge if you’ve modified several files, or would like to run your test in an environment similar to the automated build/test pipeline.


Writing a New Test

A word of caution: copy-pasting from Google Docs has been known to convert consecutive whitespace characters into unicode characters, which will break your control file. Using CTRL-C + CTRL-V is safer than using middle-click pasting on Linux.


Our aim is to create a test which does the following:

  • run hdparm -T <disk>
  • Search output for timing numbers.
  • Report this as a result.

1. Create a directory in client/site_tests, name kernel_HdParmBasic.

2. Create a control file kernel_HdParmBasic/control, a bare minimum control file for the hdparm test:

AUTHOR = "Chrome OS Team" NAME = "kernel_HdParmBasic" TIME = "SHORT" TEST_TYPE = "client" DOC = """ This test uses hdparm to measure disk performance. """ job.run_test('kernel_HdParmBasic', named_arg='kernel test')


To which you can add the necessary control variables as described in the autotest best practices. Job.run_test can take any named arguments, and the appropriate ones will be cherry picked and passed on to the test.


3. Create a test file:

At a bare minimum the test needs a run_once method, which should contain the implementation of the test; it also needs to inherit from test.test. Most tests also need initialize and cleanup methods. Create a test file client/site_tests/kernel_HdParmBasic/kernel_HdParmBasic.py:


import logging


from autotest_lib.client.bin import test class kernel_HdParmBasic(test.test): version = 1 def initialize(self): logging.debug('initialize') def run_once(self, named_arg=''): logging.debug(named_arg) def cleanup(self): logging.debug('cleanup')


Notice how only run_once takes the argument named_arg, which was passed in by the job.run_test method. You can pass arguments to initialize and cleanup this way too. You can find examples of initialize and cleanup methods in helper classes, like cros_ui_test.

Emerging and Running

Basic flow:

  • Add the new test: add +tests_kernel_HdParmBasic in the IUSE_TESTS section of the autotest-tests ebuild file:
#third_party/chromiumos-overlay/chromeos-base/autotest-tests/autotest-tests-9999.ebuild

IUSE_TESTS="${IUSE_TESTS}
# some other tests
# some other tests
# ...
 +tests_kernel_HdParmBasic
"
  • cros_workon autotest-test
cros_workon --board=lumpy start autotest-tests

  • emerge autotest-tests
emerge-lumpy chromeos-base/autotests-tests
  • run test_that
test_that -b lumpy DUT_IP kernel_HdParmBasics

If you’d like more perspective you might benefit from consulting the troubleshooting doc.

Checking results

The results folder contains many logs, to analyze client test logging messages you need to find kernel_HdParmBasic.(DEBUG, INFO, ERROR) depending on which logging macro you used. Note: logging message priorities escalate, and debug < info < warning < error. If you want to see all logging messages just look in the debug logs.


Client test logs should be in: /tmp/test_that.<RESULTS_DIR_HASH>/kernel_HdParmBasic/kernle_HdParmBasic/debug

where you will have to replace ‘/tmp/test_that.<RESULTS_DIR_HASH>’ with anything you might have specified through the --results_dir_root option.


You can also find the latest results in /tmp/test_that_latest


In the DEBUG logs you should see messages like:

01/18 12:22:46.716 DEBUG|     kernel_HdParmBasic:0025| Your logging message


Note that print messages will not show up in these logs since we redirect stdout. If you’ve already performed a ‘run_remote’ once you can directly invoke your test on a client, as described in the previous section.  Two things to note when using this approach:

a. print messages do show up

b. logging messages are also available under autotest/results/default/


Import helpers

You can import any autotest client helper module with the line

from autotest_lib.client.<dir> import <module>


You might also benefit from reading how the framework makes autotest_lib available for you.

kernel_HdParmBasic Needs test.test, so it needs to import test from client/bin.

Looking back at our initial test plan, it also needs to:

1. run hdparm -T <disk>

This implies running things on the command line, modules to look at are base/site utils.

However common_lib’s ‘utils.py’ conveniently gives us both.

from autotest_lib.client.bin import test, utils

2. Search output for timing numbers.

3. Report this as a result.

import logging, re

run_once, cleanup and initialize

If your test manages any state on the DUT it might need initialization and cleanup. In our case the subprocess handles it’s own cleanup, if any. Putting together all we’ve talked about, our run_once method looks like:


import logging, re


from autotest_lib.client.bin import test, utils

class kernel_HdParmBasic(test.test):
   
"""
   Measure disk performance: both disk (-t) and cache (-T).
   """
   version =
1

   
def run_once(self):
       
if (utils.get_cpu_arch() == "arm"):
           disk =
'/dev/mmcblk0'
       
else:
           disk =
'/dev/sda'

       logging.debug(
"Using device %s", disk)

       result = utils.system_output(
'hdparm -T %s' % disk)
       match = re.search(
'(\d+\.\d+) MB\/sec', result)
       self.write_perf_keyval({
'cache_throughput': match.groups()[0]})
       result = utils.system_output(
'hdparm -t %s' % disk)
       match = re.search(
'(\d+\.\d+) MB\/sec', result)
       self.write_perf_keyval({
'disk_throughput': match.groups()[0]})


Note the use of performance keyvals instead of plain logging statements. The keyvals are written to /usr/local/autotest/results/default/kernel_HdParmBasic/results/keyval on the client and will be reported on your console when run through run_remote_tests:


---------------------------------------
kernel_HdParmBasic/kernel_HdParmBasic   cache_throughput          4346.76
kernel_HdParmBasic/kernel_HdParmBasic   disk_throughput           144.28
---------------------------------------