Isolated Testing for SWEs


This page explains how to convert a googletest executable into a fully isolated test. This is done by describing runtime dependencies for a test.

For information about the infrastructure itself and the roadmap, see Isolated Testing Infrastructure.

What's "Isolate"?

Goal: describe the exact list of files needed to run a executable.

The isolate project is all the file formats, tools and server code to make this work fast and efficiently. Every test executable list the data files it depends on, which allows the testers bots to only download the files they need instead of the whole Chromium source tree.

What's "Swarming"?

Goal: distribute tasks fast and efficiently in an hetegeneous fleet of bots.

The swarming project is all the tools, server and bot code to run a step (like a unit test) on a remote bot and get results back. It has native google-test sharding capability.

What are the advantages?

By reducing the amount of data that we need to transfer to the tester machines, it becomes much easier to increase the number of tester bots that we have using Swarming (part of LUCI).

How to run a test isolated locally?

echo gn > out/Release/mb_type  # Must be done once to avoid from performing a clobber
tools/mb/ run //out/Release base_unittests  # Builds, generates .isolate (via gn desc runtime_deps), and runs (via " run")

ninja -C out/Release base_unittests_run
python tools/swarming_client/ archive -I -s out/Release/base_unittests.isolated
python tools/swarming_client/ run -s out/Release/base_unittests.isolated

See the Roadmap for what can or can't be done.

How to run a test remotely (GN)?

1. Build & Generate .isolate file:
ninja -C out/Release base_unittests
echo gn > out/Release/mb_type  # Must be done once to avoid from performing a clobber

tools/mb/ isolate //out/Release base_unittests # Creates out/Release/base_unittests.isolate

2. Compute .isolated file and upload it:
tools/swarming_client/ archive \
    --isolate-server \
    --isolate out/Debug/base_unittests.isolate \
    --isolated out/Debug/base_unittests.isolated \

3. Trigger the task:
tools/swarming_client/ trigger \
    --swarming \
    --isolate-server \
    --dimension os Android \

Other values for --dimension os: Mac, Windows, Linux
For other available --dimension values, look at Swarming bots (e.g.:

Documentation below is a bit dated and GYP-specific

Adding a new test

  • For each gyp XXX test executable target, a new XXX_run target is added. For example, base_unittests_run is the target to run base_unittests.
  • All the required data files, executables started by the test executable* required by the test to succeed are listed in the .isolate file.
Expectations of the tests:
  • Must not do directory walking or otherwise try to guess what should be tested.
  • Must not edit any input file.
  • Must not write at all in the current directory. It must only use the temporary directory for temporary files.


To create a new isolated test, do the following section in order:
  1. Create a "foo_unittests_run GYP target as explained below"
  2. Write a "minimal .isolate file"
  3. Use src/testing/buildbot/ --convert foo_unittests to convert your test to run on Swarming everywhere.

foo_unittests_run GYP target

foo_unittests_run target is added along side the foo_unittests target in the relevant GYP file. For example, base_unittests_run in base.gyp:

  'conditions': [
    ['test_isolation_mode != "noop"', {
      'targets': [
          'target_name': 'base_unittests_run',
          'type': 'none',
          'dependencies': [
          'includes': [
          'sources': [

See src/build/isolate.gypi for the gory details.

.isolate file format

See for the guts.

The .isolate format is will reject any file containing variables or data structure it doesn't understand.

Minimal .isolate file

In general, it is preferable to:
  1. When running tests linux, run them under XVFB. Prepend the command list with ['../testing/', '<(PRODUCT_DIR)'] to achieve this.
  2. On other platforms, use the wrapper script to setup the environment. Prefix the command list with ['../testing/'].
See src/base/base_unittests.isolate as a good example.

Simplifying .isolate files

By default a directory is only included if all the files in it are needed. If most of the directory is used and you feel that it makes sense to make the full directory available to simplify the .isolate file,  feel free to replace the individual listings with a single directory listing. is run by the foo_unittests_run gyp target and is the front end to do all the commands. It reads a single .isolate file.
  • The logic is implemented in tools/swarming_client/ Its action depends on the subcommand.
  • All the XXX_run targets run this script and pass the argument <(test_isolation_mode).
    • test_isolation_mode is a GYP_DEFINES variable that can be overridden, the default is set in build/common.gypi and can vary between noop and prepare, based on the environment.
    • Builders have a different value than the developers; they archive the dependencies on the Isolate Server.
  • Then Swarming picks up the archived files and runs it across a fleet of slaves.
See src/tools/swarming_client/ --help for the up-to-date behavior description.



Right now, only users can use the infrastructure. For others, we'll try to make it available to Chromium committers eventually. Note that the whole Swarming infrastructure is open source so if any other company would help to recreate the same infrastructure internally, send us a note at

Get the Swarming client code

If you have a chromium checkout, you already have everything you need in src/tools/swarming_client/.

Login on the services

By login first, you have access tokens so that the following commands do not have to constantly prompt for your identity. 

python tools/swarming_client/ login --service=
python tools/swarming_client/ login --service= 

If you are running through a text only session on a remote machine, append argument --auth-no-local-webserver

Run the example

This is a good sanity check to ensure that everything works:

python tools/swarming_client/example/ -I \

If this doesn't work, see the FAQ before continuing or ping us, we're friendly.

Trigger the task

Now you built something, time to archives it to the isolate server and request Swarming to run it on your behalf.

python tools/swarming_client/ run \
    -I \
    -S \
    -d os Windows-7-SP1 \
    -d gpu none \
    --verbose \

First thing it does is to archive the binary. Depending on your connection speed and the size of the executable, it may take up to a minute. Then it triggers the task and wait for results. OS currently available:
  • Windows-XP-SP3 (32 bits)
  • Windows-Vista-SP2 (64 bits)
  • Windows-7-SP1 (64 bits)
  • Ubuntu-12.04 (64 bits)
  • Mac-10.6
  • Mac-10.8
  • Mac-10.9
Visit to see all the values available. That's it. Feel free to contact the team at for any chromium open source specific questions.

Additional Notes


I run a task on Swarming and it hangs there

It is possible that all the bots are currently fully utilized.

It seems tedious to list each test data file individually, can I just list src/ ?

In theory yes, in practice please don't and keep the list to the strict minimum. The goal is not to run the tests more slowly and having the slaves download 20 gb of data. Reasons includes:
  1. Isolate Server is optimized for < 50000 files scenario. There's a 2ms/file cost per cache hit. So for example, layout tests are currently out of the use case since there's > 80000 files.
  2. It's always possible to go coarser but it's much harder to get back stricter.

Where can I find the .isolated file?

The .isolated files are generated when you build the isolation specific version of a target, e.g. out/Debug or out/Release. The isolation target name is just the normal target name with a _run added to the end.

I have an error, is it related to .isolate files?

If you have a test that passes locally and fails on some trybots, then it could be related.

This error can be seen when a browser test js file is not found:
  TypeError: Cannot read property 'testCaseBodies' of undefined

Where should I file bugs?

Swarming specific bugs can be filed on Chromium specific bugs at